It is a law of nature common to all mankind, which no time shall annul or destroy, that those who have more strength and excellence shall bear rule over those who have less.
The spread of the British empire begins with the permanent settlement at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607; in order that we may understand this settlement, and all that follows a preliminary survey, must need to be made of the growth of English unity and the development of the institutions during the middle ages.
The genius for British colonization lies upon their adaptability to new conditions, such a thing occurred during the development of the colonies in America, which when matured, doubled the conceptions of law, freedom and international justice, therefore the success of the American Revolution was by no means a calamity.
Great Britain became the workshop of the world during the XVIII century, the industrial revolution was a result of remarkable inventions applied to the textile trades and to the improvements in the utilization of power for manufacturing, mining, communication, and transportation.
The war with Spain during the Elizabethan period made clear the naval supremacy of the British, this, in turn, gave a feeling of security in the possession of distant lands, along with the monopoly of maritime commerce, soon this trace pursued the rise of a new colonial interest.
In 1825 Great Britain had an Empire of Imposing size, the Spanish Empire collapsed with the independence of its colonies and Britain emerged with numerous trading posts and islands in all parts of the Globe, sections of continents such as India, Canada, Cape Colony, and even Australia formed part of its far-spread dominions.
England, that little body with a mighty should have carried its arms and its arms to every corner of the habitable globe, If we cast our eyes on the map of the world, we shall find that the sun and its daily course never set upon Englishmen.
The United States served as an influence in other another way, that led to doubt the value of the colonial system, Englishmen became more and more convinced that the loss of the American colonies had taught the usefulness of the endeavoring to keep dependencies that had come to maturity.
The British statesmen of the day were thinking largely in terms of the financial return, which was the same attitude that cause the weakening of the old colonial system in 1783, America left because the acquisition of wealth and power was brought to maturity.
The same principle applies to the independence of South America, and it was predicted in 1816 that unless the people of the Spanish colonies were made of a different material from the rest of the species, the British ventured to predict that their final emancipation was an event not far beyond.
In 1822 the Under-Secretary of State for War and Colonies was responsible for a good deal of this governmental interest in immigration, his aim was to free England from its surplus of population and at the same time to furnish laborers to the colonies needing them, he believed that this would strengthen the bonds between the mother country and its dependencies.
The plan to colonize, fight poverty and overpopulation, was that a manufacturing country such as England, would obtain cheap grain supply by the use of labor in the colonial fields, the remedy to make it attractive was that the land in the colonies was to be sold instead of given away. The land was valued at a sufficient price so that the laborers coming to the colony would be compelled to work for wages with the prospect of owning the land later.
The Under-Secretary considered that young married couples should be given the preference for this enterprise. People would rule themselves well in their own interests, colonies thereby would become attractive to emigrants and they would gradually acquire the means for their own protection, colonists were to be proud of their work and their place The American colonies had a municipal right of government that made them successful and with the imposition of the central principle of administration from the distant Empire, the nourish of the revolt was inevitable.
The experience in America, created the systematic colonization, a group created in 1830 to establish a general system of colonization founded on the principles of Selection, Concentration and the sale of Wasteland for the purposes of emigration. South Australia was selected as the location for their practical experiment, in 1836 the colony was founded in Adelaide and by 1843 it was in a prosperous condition, a further movement was the establishment of colonies in New Zealand.
The grant of self-government dominions, ane the increasing of English speaking populations increased the attractiveness of the empire to all the European nations, in the years following the opening-up of Africa, led to a remarkable change in the sentiment, in the latter days of Queen Victoria reign imperial, problems were to become more and more engrossing.