The foundation of the United States is due primarily to two groups of English immigrants: the Pilgrims and the Puritans. The pilgrims were separatists of the Church of England and the Puritans did not separate from it, but they believed that it was the only true church and remained loyal to England. They believed that the cult and practice of «New England» would be an example for Old England and the world.
The pilgrims were few in number, 102 and sailed across the Atlantic on the Mayflower. About half died in the first winter. The Puritans came by the thousands, in fact, forty or fifty thousand eventually arrived. In 1776, 75% of the American population was of Puritan roots.
The pilgrims arrived earlier in 1620 and the Puritans arrived later in 1629 to 1630.
The pilgrims for the most part were from the poor class. Not everyone in the Mayflower came for religious reasons, some came for better economic opportunities in the New World. The Puritans were mainly upper middle class.
The pilgrims were not well educated, whereas the Puritans were typically well educated. More than 100 of the first Puritans who came to the United States were educated at Oxford or Cambridge. After 6 years of landing, the Puritans founded the first university, Harvard, in Cambridge (Boston).
The pilgrims settled in Plymouth. The Puritans settled in Salem and Boston. Ultimately, however, both colonies united to form Massachusetts after the Puritans revoked their charter in 1689.
The thinking of the Puritans was rooted in the consciousness of Americans, considering themselves the chosen people of God to take their word to the world. In 1603 John Cotton, Puritan minister, stated the following:
«No nation has the right to expel another, but it is by a special design of heaven like the one the Israelites had, unless the natives unjustly worked with it, in this case they will have the right to legally wage war with them and subdue them. «
Rome, Maryland, was the original name of a community within Prince George’s County, which would eventually become Washington, District of Columbia, the capital of the nascent country, this was the original name of the Capitol Hill community, upon which the Capitol of the United States would settle.
The buildings of the new capital were built in the likeness of the Romans, the Senate adopted as a symbol the Roman Eagle and the Roman Fascias. George Washington imagines the new Rome in Maryland and in more than once it was thought that the fallen Roman Empire would be reborn in the United States of America.
In 1663, the property that would become the site of the Capitol was inscribed in the property records of Maryland as Rome, its owner, was a man named Francis Pope and on the southern boundary of this property was flanked by a river called as the one that crosses Rome, the Tiber.
The community was part of the ten-square-mile terrain that would become Washington, DC, and its owner, Daniel Carroll, transferred the community to the federal government after the amendment to the Constitution that dictated the construction of the new capital of the United States.
Daniel Carroll was the president of a three-man commission appointed by President George Washington to find a suitable place for the capital city. Signer of the Declaration of Independence, Daniel Carroll was a Roman Catholic educated by Jesuits in Maryland and France. His brother John Carroll became the first Catholic bishop in America, presiding over the Baltimore See, which included Washington, and founder John Carroll also founded Georgetown University.
The United States was founded in the midst of the ideology of freedom and equality of the century of lights, along with the Puritan bases and the pragmatism of English laws. In 1845 John O’Sullivan would write an essay entitled «Annexation in the Democratic Review» in which he used the phrase «manifest destiny» for the first time.
He addressed the border dispute with Britain arguing that the United States had the right to claim «all of Oregon,» and in his article urged the United States government to annex the Republic of Texas not only because Texas wanted this, but because it was «our manifest destiny to expand the continent assigned by Providence for the free development of our people that is multiplied by millions «
«… And that affirmation is due to the right of our Manifest Destiny to extend ourselves and to possess all the continent that Providence has granted us for the development of the great experiment of freedom and autonomous government that has been entrusted to us.»
The United States had secured the Louisiana Purchase to Napoleon Bonaparte in 1803, years later President Polk now saw as the Manifest Destiny of the Americans gaining access to the Pacific Ocean with the annexation at all costs of Texas, New Mexico and the Californias, the current states of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah and Colorado.
The independence of Texas, is proclaimed thanks to a group of adventurers and land speculators that had been established long ago in New Spain with the prior authorization of the Spanish crown, to populate and make productive the desert lands, soon these American citizens saw those land as their own before the facilities granted by Spain and proclaim the independence of this territory with the absolute support of the United States.
On February 2, 1848, a Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits and Settlement was signed in Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the war between Mexico and the United States. While the war was apparently to secure the boundary of the recently annexed state of Texas, it became clear from the beginning that the United States’ objective was entirely a territorial expansion. Mexico was forced to cede Alta California, New Mexico and parts of northern states of Sonora, Coahuila and Tamaulipas.
The expansion towards the Pacific Ocean of 13 colonies separated from the continent by a mountain range, was achieved due to the belief of its settlers to be the chosen people of God, their descendants would later lead its Manifest Destiny to other parts of the world, giving origin to the American Empire that had its peak in the Twentieth century and its economic zenith, at the end of the Second World War, and its political zenith with the extinction of the Soviet Union.